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    Outer Space Treaty (OST)

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    New Tarajan
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    Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Sat May 02, 2015 9:24 am

    The Tarajani delegation wishes to propose to our fellow delegates the text of this Treaty.
    Actually, there are many attempts undergoing in the General Assembly to create a regulatory framework. Since New Tarajan is firmly committed in keeping the Outer Space a place for peaceful cooperation and progress for all Mankind, this is our own proposal: not a Resoluton, but an International Treaty under the auspices of the UNE.
    Countries are free to sign it or not. In case we gather a sufficient number of adherents, we will propose a Resolution that will adopt the Treaty as an integral part of UNE legislation, otherwise it will keep its validity as multilateral agreement between the Signatory Parties.

    This is intended to be only a first step toward a strong regulatory framework: from here, jurisprudence of the Court of Justice could evolve; also, we can use these provisions as the ground for more specific regulations.


    Outher Space Treaty:

    OUTER SPACE TREATY



        The States Parties to this Treaty,

        Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man's entry into outer space,

        Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

        Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development,

        Desiring to contribute to broad international co-operation in the scientific as well as the legal aspects of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

        Believing that such co-operation will contribute to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States and peoples,

        Convinced that a Treaty on the exploration and use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies, will further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations of Esamir,

        Have agreed on the following:



    Article I

       The exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind.

       Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of celestial bodies.

       There shall be freedom of scientific investigation in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and States shall facilitate and encourage international co-operation in such investigation.



    Article II

       Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.



    Article III

       States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations of Esamir, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international co-operation and understanding.



    Article IV

       States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.

       The moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military manoeuvres on celestial bodies shall be forbidden. The use of military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility necessary for peaceful exploration of the moon and other celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited.


    Article V

       States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptly returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.

       In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties.

       States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of Esamir of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.



    Article VI

       States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.



    Article VII

       Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or juridical persons by such object or its component parts on the Earth, in air or in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies.

    Article VIII

       A State Party to the Treaty on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and over any personnel thereof, while in outer space or on a celestial body. Ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer space or on a celestial body or by their return to the Earth. Such objects or component parts found beyond the limits of the State Party to the Treaty on whose registry they are carried shall be returned to that State Party, which shall, upon request, furnish identifying data prior to their return.



    Article IX

       In the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, States Parties to the Treaty shall be guided by the principle of co-operation and mutual assistance and shall conduct all their activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States Parties to the Treaty. States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose. If a State Party to the Treaty has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by it or its nationals in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities of other States Parties in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, it shall undertake appropriate international consultations before proceeding with any such activity or experiment. A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment.



    Article X

       In order to promote international co-operation in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, in conformity with the purposes of this Treaty, the States Parties to the Treaty shall consider on a basis of equality any requests by other States Parties to the Treaty to be afforded an opportunity to observe the flight of space objects launched by those States. The nature of such an opportunity for observation and the conditions under which it could be afforded shall be determined by agreement between the States concerned.

     

    Article XI

       In order to promote international co-operation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, States Parties to the Treaty conducting activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, agree to inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of the nature, conduct, locations and results of such activities. On receiving the said information, the Secretary-General of the United Nations of Esamir should be prepared to disseminate it immediately and effectively.



    Article XII

       All stations, installations, equipment and space vehicles on the moon and other celestial bodies shall be open to representatives of other States Parties to the Treaty on a basis of reciprocity. Such representatives shall give reasonable advance notice of a projected visit, in order that appropriate consultations may be held and that maximum precautions may betaken to assure safety and to avoid interference with normal operations in the facility to be visited.



    Article XIII

       The provisions of this Treaty shall apply to the activities of States Parties to the Treaty in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by a single State Party to the Treaty or jointly with other States, including cases where they are carried on within the framework of international intergovernmental organizations.

       Any practical questions arising in connection with activities carried on by international intergovernmental organizations in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be resolved by the States Parties to the Treaty either with the appropriate international organization or with one or more States members of that international organization, which are Parties to this Treaty.



    Article XIV

      This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign this Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at anytime.


     
    Article XV

       Any State Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Treaty accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Treaty and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Treaty on the date of acceptance by it.



    Article XVI

       Any State Party to the Treaty may give notice of its withdrawal from the Treaty one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Depositary Governments. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification.
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    Federation of Antanares
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Federation of Antanares on Sun May 03, 2015 4:45 am

    Antanares is against some parts of this treaty. Sincerely, Article VI and XI are not useful. We will not collaborate with some nations and allow everyone to enter on our space structures. Also, we have no intention to inform everyone about our activities. Some facts can be shared, other one not.

    We agree with these sentiments.
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    Zackalantis
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Zackalantis on Sun May 03, 2015 6:15 pm

    The UKZ supports this treaty. However we would like to see the opinions of other nations before we sign it.
    Are the Tarajani authors open to amendments?
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    New Tarajan
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Sun May 03, 2015 9:38 pm

    Of course.
    The text of the Treaty explicitly provides for the possibility to have amendments.
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    Eurasia
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Eurasia on Sun May 03, 2015 11:24 pm

    Federation of Antanares wrote:Antanares is against some parts of this treaty. Sincerely, Article VI and XI are not useful. We will not collaborate with some nations and allow everyone to enter on our space structures. Also, we have no intention to inform everyone about our activities. Some facts can be shared, other one not.

    We agree with these sentiments.
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    New Tarajan
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Mon May 04, 2015 1:59 am

    Well, you're not obliged to sign the Treaty, too.

    Although we are open to amendments.
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Eurasia on Mon May 04, 2015 3:58 am

    New Tarajan wrote:Well, you're not obliged to sign the Treaty, too.

    Although we are open to amendments.

    We would be willing to if the concerns are addressed.
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    New Tarajan
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Mon May 04, 2015 5:03 am

    Explain these concerns: to what exactly are you against?
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    Eurasia
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Eurasia on Mon May 04, 2015 5:44 am

    Specifically Article X. We do not feel that it should be mandatory for us to breach our own national security because somebody asked nicely.
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    New Tarajan
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Tue May 19, 2015 2:57 am

    Europe and Asia wrote:Specifically Article X. We do not feel that it should be mandatory for us to breach our own national security because somebody asked nicely.

    We agree.
    We'll amend the text by introducing a new Article X, which will allow access only to UNE officials.
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    New Tarajan
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Tue May 26, 2015 10:17 pm

    The text has been amended. Are there other countries wishing to sign it?
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    Eurasia
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Eurasia on Sat Sep 19, 2015 4:56 am

    Unless there is a pressing need to keep this going, I will move it to the Archives.
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    New Tarajan
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by New Tarajan on Sat Sep 19, 2015 6:00 am

    We still are waiting for eventual response from other delegations.

    Please, leave it here for other few days.
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Eurasia on Sat Sep 19, 2015 8:29 am

    Okay, it's been half a year with zero activity. You've got until tomorrow and I move it.
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    Re: Outer Space Treaty (OST)

    Post by Eurasia on Sat Sep 19, 2015 8:41 am

    Okay, it's been half a year with zero activity. You've got until tomorrow and I move it.

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