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    European News

    Post by United States of Europe on Sat Aug 30, 2014 7:53 pm

    EUROPEAN NEWS - GOVERNMENT - ECONOMY - INFRASTRUCTURE - TECHNOLOGY - PROJECTS - SPACE AFFAIRS
    COMES INTO OPERATION THE EUROPEAN SATELLITE POSITIONING AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM
    The "Galileo System", the most advanced system of satellite navigation and positioning,all of European production,is active
    Europe is now independent,the economic benefits will be enormous



    A concept art of the satellites, now in operating at full speed


    The NAVSTAR GGPS,or NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Galileo Global Positioning System,or,if you prefer simplicity, the Galileo System,is finally up and running,and now it's at full speed. The system will be managed entirely by European Space Agency,in open collaboration with other government agencies. It is a satellite system for navigation and global positioning,designed and developed for civilian use,but also with distinct characteristics for the military sector (and also for public safety, as we shall see). Its main objective is to ensure a system of navigation and positioning precise and in real time, with an error that arrives at most at the centimeter and a half. A technology superior than any other now in use.

    In particular, the system now provides full coverage and easily accessible throughout the national territory (including settlements), which can be extended to the entire global surface. More attention is paid to high latitudes and "urban canyons", the narrow streets of the big cities where the signal is usually hard to get. In short, no more stress and disruption to citizens and businesses, who now have an efficient service, fast and, of course, free.



    One of the Up-Links Stations of European Space Agency, used for communications to satellites


    But his goals are also a little more "patriotic",because with this new and sophisticated system Europe will finally have its own satellite navigation and positioning system. Until now, in fact our nation is resting on the system supplied by other nations,a situation certainly embarrassing for a global power as Europe. But now,and we dare to say that it was time,the European power is independent and also technologically advanced in this sector.

    The last satellite,in the constellation of 30 units,was launched and placed two weeks ago,while about 9 days after it went into operation last control station on the ground. This morning,the system officially came into operation.
    The first man ever to make a journey using the new Galileo System was Martin Schulz,the President of the Republic. In fact,the President drove his car (unescorted and alone) from the presidential palace to the headquarter of the European Space Agency,for the opening ceremony. Definitely a good measure for advertising. And memorable were the faces of pedestrians as the President stopped the car to allow them to cross the street. Or the expression of motorists stopped at traffic lights,which have seen the President stopped beside them. In short,the President,an ordinary citizen in the town urban bustle of every day,but with one more friend,the Galileo System.

    The European Government has invested tens of billions in this project,which has been successful, and that will allow large economic returns and unprecedented development. A project that involved almost all government agencies,dozens of enterprises (and all their related business),also small and medium sized companies,a project that has seen at work the whole scientific community,which offered work to the most brilliant minds in the nation and many others,a project that will make Europe great. But let's see how this system works, what are the services that offer and what are the economic returns.


    FUNCTIONING & ARCHITECTURE




    Despite the great technological innovations that make this new system, the architecture remains the usual: there are three segments,one based on space,a ground-based and one based on users.
    Let's analyze one by one, listing the features.


    SPACE SEGMENT


    For the space segment, the Galileo System consists of 30 satellites placed in MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) at an altitude of 23.222 km. The satellites occupy three planes inclined at an angle of 56 ° with respect to the equator. Precisely ten satellites on each floor (in the first image that is visible). The devices will take about 14 hours for a complete revolution around the planet.

    Planners and engineers at ESA (European Space Agency) had good reasons for choosing such a structure for the Galileo Constellation. With 30 satellites at such an altitude, there is a very high probability (more than 98%) that anyone anywhere in the world will always be in sight of at least four satellites and hence will be able to determine their position from the ranging signals broadcast by the satellites. The inclination of the orbits was chosen to ensure good coverage of polar latitudes,without,however,affecting the service provided to the equatorial zones.

    From most locations, six to eight satellites will always be visible, allowing positions to be determined very accurately – to within a few centimetres. Even in high rise cities, there will be a good chance that a road user will have sufficient satellites overhead for taking a position.


    GROUND SEGMENT


    The ground segment is composed in particular from 4 Navigation System Control Centers,which takes care of all the series of operations required to determine the orbit of the satellites,to monitor the timing,and the determination and dissemination of information through satellites integrity. It is extremely technologically advanced centers,managed by ESA and capillary sites in the nation.

    The system also provides a global network of stations for monitoring orbit and synchronization,spread widely in the nation, the Orbitography & Synchronisation Processing Facilities. Then there is a network of control stations used for telemetry and control of the satellites,the Telemetry, Tracking & Control Centers. Used for communication with the satellites is a network of stations,the Up-Link Stations. To interconnect these operating centers and facilities with each other and allow the exchange of data with other government agencies,there is a solid database and a large computer network,the Data Dissemination Network.

    This is obviously very advanced operating centers from technological point of view, efficient and widely distributed in the nation, and with a high level of automation,all managed by the European Space Agency.


    USER SEGMENT


    End users of the Galileo System will have a wide range of receiving terminals as a function of signals broadcast by satellites and for the various basic services. It is not necessary to change tools to use, as the system is able to operate also with terminals products before its start.


    SERVICES & ECONOMIC RETURNS



    A picture of one of the four Navigation System Control Centers


    The Galileo System was designed as a core application on which every other application must be implemented. The use of Galileo on a full range of integrated services can range from use in the field of transport (air,rail,sea,road, pedestrian),the synchronization,monitoring,such as support for the law enforcement,for engineering applications,and for scientific,environmental,and recreational activities.

    The Galileo System is designed to be a navigation system to be applied in the field of transportation and is designed to meet the diverse needs of different user segments in the market in the field of avionics the advent of "GNSS" ("Global Navigation Satellite System") will lead to possibility of no risk critical driving maneuvers such as takeoffs and landings even in conditions of very poor visibility, leading to a progressive reduction of the control systems on Earth.
    In the maritime field will lead to the development of the "AIS" ("Automated Identification System") which will increase the safety in navigation. Applications with regard to road traffic are many but the most interesting case of "Advanced Driver Assistance Centre Systems", high automation systems integrated into cars to enable collision checking, increase visibility and allow automated maneuvering at low speeds.

    As regards the energy sector, the use of atomic clocks (contained in satellites) can facilitate the synchronization of the electric lines facilitating the transmission of electrical energy,may also monitor the lines and thus speed up the process of maintenance of the same. There are also benefits for the field of oil and gas.



    One of the control centers of the satellites,seen from the outside


    Also,thanks to the atomic clocks of the satellites may release date-stamps in order to authenticate financial transactions via the web. For insurance agencies the Galileo System becomes a way to monitor and control the status of goods by introducing a dynamic based on the risk associated with each individual policy. Banks may instead monitor the transport of gold,and precious banknotes in general,increasing safety standards.

    With regard to the safety of citizens,the European emergency agencies can now count on Galileo System to track the position of people in need. During crisis situations, where speed of action is essential, having the ability to know precisely the exact location of the place in which work is vital, just think of fires, floods, earthquakes. In emergency situations is also increased coordination,thanks to the Galileo System.

    The Galileo System will be a valuable ally of the scientific community since the precise definition of the coordinates also allow to create accurate maps of the ocean and icy areas, provide detailed level values ​​of the tides and river levels, making the tracking of icebergs and many others tasks of great importance.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Ireland on Sun Aug 31, 2014 7:33 am

    A New Face

    With only 2 weeks of Enda Kenny's last term as Prime Minister to go. The Conservative Party has elected a new Chairman. Who was this person? David Cameron. This was a statement from David Cameron soon after winning the leadership. "It has been an honor to serve as Vice Chairman of the Conservative Party. And it has been an honor to serve along Prime Minister Kenny as he served as Prime Minister. This party has been through its highs and its lows under Enda but mostly highs. I hope I as Chairman of the Conservative Party can be just as good as him. And I hope I can get the chance of serving as Prime Minister of this United Kingdom."



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    European News

    Post by United States of Europe on Tue Sep 02, 2014 5:18 am

    EUROPEAN NEWS - GOVERNMENT - PUBLIC SERVICE - HEALTH - WELFARE
    GOVERNMENT RENEWS AND REORGANIZES NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE
    New plans to make the Health System the most efficient,modern and technological in the region
    New interventions to emphasize the universalistic principles upon which the Health Service is based,to give to every citizen the right to health




    The government decree was approved by the Parliament with an overwhelming majority, only a short time ago, and is now fully operational. The press conference held by the Ministry of Health and by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, presented to the international press the entire contents of the decree, that in order to ensure usual maximum transparency, is available online in full text.

    The decree,known as the National Strategy for Public Health, is the first action of the Government to respond to the growing needs of modernization and reorganization of health care in our nation.
    First, the law confirms the principles of universality on which the National Health Service is founded,which shall remain wholly under the control of the state (and thus without any infiltration of private companies) and dispense free medical care to the population,thus ensuring the right to health (however,guaranteed by the European Constitution).
    After that there is a general increase in funding health care, to take at least 13-14% of GDP.  There is therefore a general reorganization of local health network, with upgrades, renovations, new buildings and better territorial organization. So interventions for the redefinition of the roles of the State and of the Regions. It then goes on to interventions aimed at improving general care,with the improvement of existing technologies and the modernization of the machinery.
    Finally there is an intervention on the staff, with the recruitment of new physicians and practitioners, with a total release of the turn-over and the stabilization of temporary contracts.
    But first things first.

    This law will allow the National Health Service to become the most efficient,modern,technological and accesible throughout the region and beyond.


    INCREASED FUNDING




    The Ministry of Health has provided a general increase in funding, which consist of several tens of billions, which should bring government spending on health to at least 13-4% of the Gross Domestic Product,thus an improvement of fund that amounts to several hundreds of billions. As a result will be increased state funding directed towards the Regions (which co-operate with the Government in health matters), which will always be traceable and suspendable at any time,in order to avoid waste. These loans have very specific destinations and already established,aimed at improving healthcare delivery to citizens.

    For major emergencies (such as the affront of extraordinary expenses or risk of default) is set up an Public Health Emergency Fund,under the control of the Ministry of Health,with a budget of several billion,available for both regions and for individual hospitals.


    HOSPITAL TERRITORIAL NETWORK & TECHNOLOGY MODERNIZATION




    The new government funds are mainly aimed at the renewal of the territorial structure of the National Health Service.
    It is therefore a special plan for complete renovation of existing buildings and facilities,so as to make efficient maintenance and management (especially from the point of view of energy). They are also allocated new funds for routine maintenance.
    New hospitals will be created to meet the growing needs of the population,according to strict standards of energy efficiency,good organization of space and high-tech installations. The construction of new hospital structures and the renovation of the old ones is also aimed at making the hospital network is well connected to the transport network and closer to the population. In addition, there will be substantial allocations for the renewal of all systems of medical support in the various hospitals,replacing them with technologically advanced systems,instruments and equipmwents (the best on the market). Obviously,financing and restructuring plans and the expansion plans does not relate only to large structures and high-tech facilities (which will be assempled in very large hospital poles,located in a strategic position),but also outpatient clinics,emergencies rooms,centers of rehabilitation and other peripheral structures. In this way, the service will be significantly increased, as well as the number of beds available.

    The strategy is to focus on a few high-tech facilities for emergency and acute care facilities flanked by low and medium intensity of care facilities where help patients with chronic diseases and those who do not require highly specialized interventions. Hospitals must then be linked together through networks of specialty to avoid duplication and redundancy,but it is also essential to the close link with the territorial facilities,minor hospitals,residential rehabilitation facilities,with home care,with general medicine and with pediatrics medicine to ensure real processes of taking care and continuity of care.


    GENERAL PRACTITIONERS




    Until now the studies of General Practitioners were scattered in the territory,in certain zones present in excess,in other
    absent.

    Now,even through forms of financing,studies of General Practitioners will be merged into single centers,modern, functional and easily accessible and equipped with sophisticated instruments. Their location will be determined in such a way as to provide a comprehensive service, but also so as not to create unnecessary "duplication" in a single territory. These new surgeries of General Practitioners will be equipped,computerized,linked closely with specialist clinics and hospitals, and with the network of social and health services. This ensures a service to the citizens present at all times, 24 hours a day, 7 days out of 7, every day of the year. A service that will not be exclusively conducted in the surgeries,but that will also include home care (also active 24 hours a day).


    SYSTEM OF HEALTH EMERGENCY -118




    In the law there is also a substantial reorganization of the System of Health Emergency-118, with a massive release of funds for improvement. The system will be managed by regional government agencies (under the responsibility of the Regions),defined RAEU (Regional Agencies of Emergency and Urgency). There will be an agency for each Region, but they will all be organized in a standard way.

    These agencies will have a regional operations center,and more detachments at the provincial level,all fully computerized and equipped with the latest technology and constantly connected with hospitals of their respective areas of expertise. The Regionals Operations Centre and the Provincials Operations Centre will have the task of managing the emergency in the event of a request by the citizens (via the health emergency number 118).

    All the greatest nation's hospitals are already equipped with emergency rooms.
    From now on the emergency rooms of the major hospitals will be converted into DEA of Level I (Departments of Emergency and Acceptance),adapted for the functions of the higher qualifying arising from the emergency,such as cardiac surgery,neurosurgery,neonatal intensive care, vascular surgery, thoracic surgery according to the directions set by the regional planning.
    Medium-sized hospitals will be equipped with DEA of Level II,for less serious emergencies, specialized functions of observation and shorter hospital stays, intensive care and, at the same time, it must ensure that diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in general medicine, general surgery,orthopedics and traumatology,cardiology.
    At the territorial level,in smaller hospitals,will act the Emergency Rooms ,for minor emergencies,accessible by the public without the need for ambulances.

    All of these units will be adequately refinanced,with the provision of new facilities and with extremely advanced medical instruments. In this way you will avoid overcrowding, and the service will improve for sure. Obviously for transporting tools will be used normal ambulances,ambulances for advanced rescue and air ambulances (helicopters). With a large refinancing in the various regions, will have increased the supply of vehicles and instruments, upgrades and,where necessary,replacement of old ones with new ones more functional and efficient.

    All facilities operate 24 hours a day.
    In any case, the entire System of Health Emergency-118 will remain under the control and management of government, and is fully guaranteed to all citizens (without charges,free).


    ACTION FOR PERSONNEL & TRASPARENCY




    The law also includes measures for personnel employed in the National Health Service,with various measures aimed at transparency and the improvement of working conditions in the sector.

    First,there is an extension of the release of the turn-over,or all employees who do not work more in the field (especially for retirements) will be replaced with the hiring of new workers. There is therefore a measure for the stabilization of temporary contracts (of all categories in the National Health Service),through their conversion into permanent contracts. Finally, there is a prohibition of a new fixed-term contracts by government,in all categories of the Service:the new hires will necessarily have permanent contracts.

    So there are measures for transparency, especially regarding the appointments of primaries,general managers and executives. With the new rules,the appointments will be made as clear and visible criteria motivated solely based on merit.
    The selection will follow, therefore, a phase of verification of the results not only on the basis of economic and management aspects but also on strategies and outcomes in terms of health. For the transaction transparency,will get further rules, such as the clinical results of each hospital,which will be made public on the internet,and made available to the people (who are the real "owners" of the National Health Service). In addition to this will be posted on the websites of each company hospital costs for the purchase of goods and services to facilitate the processes of transparency and competition to make more uniform the whole sector at the national level and get to a significant overall reduction in the purchase price.

    Obviously,if the National Health Service,by using the rules described above,will have stable jobs,well-paid and with excellent working conditions, workers will have to ensure maximum engagement and productivity. In particular, there are new rules to introduce periodic evaluations on the merits and to discourage bad behavior (such as absenteeism).


    DIGITALIZATION & NEW RULES ON COSTS




    The law provides for a total computerization and digitization of various practices of the National Health Service,to make the service more efficient and reduce costs.
    The key areas on which this innovative process of digitization are: Electronic Medical Records for each citizen,computerized management of medications for each citizen,prescription of drugs computerized,delivery of medical reports online,reservation of health services on the internet. Also apply the so-called Electronics Health Insurance (insurance is managed by the government and is free for all). In this way,through a national database safe and secure,any hospital or pharmacy, in real time,can access to the medical records of each patient,to review the medications he needs or ongoing therapies. The digitized and computerized system will allow rapidity and speed, combined, however, with the privacy of the citizen, and will reduce billionaires wastages (money that will be properly reinvested in the National Health Service).

    To reduce inefficiencies, there is also the establishment of a Unique National Center for Health Purchasing, organized at the national level and managed by the Ministry of Health. It will be the structure that will handle the health purchases (up from drugs to medical equipment) at the central level,and will have a dedicated area for each Region. It will also sorting the purchased material to the regional and local structures of the National Health Service,according to the specific needs and requirements really necessary. In this way, local governments will no longer have freedom of health care spending,but will avoid unnecessary squandering of billions of euro (which will be properly reinvested).


    REORGANIZATION OF HEALTH TICKET & GOVERNANCE




    The National Health Service,as already repeatedly stated,it is a universal system that guarantees all citizens all the necessary care,managed entirely by the state and which is maintained by general taxation (the common taxes). The 90% of medical and health benefits (including health insurance,vaccinations and medications),in which is included the whole of life-saving medical care, is at the expense of the state. For the other,is introduced a co-financing between citizen and state, the health ticket.

    The health ticket,through this law,is modulated according to income. It is a tax scale,based on ability to pay of the person, and then increases with income. In any case, the ticket can not stay within more than a certain threshold,and is determined solely by the Ministry of Health. However, all persons who have an income below the national median income,with the new rules, are excluded from payments. They are also excluded from the payment of special categories of people, such as pensioners and the elderly,children,chronically ill and other people at risk (pregnant women, or persons performing particular jobs).

    The law strengthens the role of the Ministry of Health in the governance of the National Health Service,which retrieves real capacity of government health policy,in a ratio of full and fair institutional collaboration with the regions, carrying out fully its function of directing,monitoring,assessment of the innovation system with the criteria of homogeneity and equity of access to care.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Reisal on Thu Sep 04, 2014 11:26 am

    REFERENDUM FAILS
    But Separatist Governor Is Re-Elected


    In a dramatic and extremely close election night in Talanzaar, sovereignty in Uihotu has been rejected, with 49.7% voting NO (17,892,052 votes) and 49.3% voting YES (17,856,441 votes), a difference of just over 35,000 votes. This comes as the Governor who started it all, Ward Tobias, was re-elected with 47% of the vote, beating his opponent who had 45% of the vote. This is a 14 point swing FOR Tobias's opponent, who was defeat by Tobias with 61% of the vote in 2010. "Its a victory for everyone who loves this nation" said the President, recorded at a party celebrating this election. "Sadly the Governor was re-elected, but winning with 47% doesn't give you a mandate. I say he should resign or the people should immediately call a re-call election." continued the President. Back at the "YES" side's HQ, the Governor looked deeply saddened as he conceded the referendum, but strangely made no comment about his re-election. "The people have spoken, although not clearly." said the Governor. "It was clear that there are alot of us out there who want independence. We must peruse what our hearts desire." continued the Governor. "He keeps pointing out the fact that the NO side did not receive a majority of the vote -- NEITHER DID HE!" said a exuberant NO supporter.

    What comes next is confusing for Talanzaar -- Uihotuians do not want to separate, but their governor does. Multiple attempts have already been made on the Governor's life and the Presidents . . . the ULF has promised to kill the President after the election results. .. -- will the Governor survive the next 4 years? Will the President survive the next 2? Or will the political drama end them. . . literally.


    Planitan Gangs Make Appearance In Talanzaar


    Talanzaars largest and most popular news network - - TNN, has published an explosive report on the emergence of Crysis -- a Planitan terrorist gang that has been reportedly sending agents to Talanzaar to give the separatist ULF terrorist groups drugs, weapons and cash. "This report clearly shows that gangs from Planita are arriving here." said a Professor. "The threat is not large but we need to crack down on these people -- chain them up and send them back where they came from." The State House says its aware of the threats and may consider lobbying for tougher immigration laws, but will the Liberal Prime Minister agree to such laws?


    Last edited by Talanzaar on Sun Sep 07, 2014 9:27 am; edited 1 time in total

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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Guest on Sat Sep 06, 2014 3:21 pm

    Dromoda is an Kindom now



    -Phata- King Davian is the first king of Dromoda. his majesty is the new ruler of the young kingdom of Dromoda.


    (OOC: il start again with a new line and new history. )
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    European News

    Post by United States of Europe on Sat Sep 06, 2014 11:31 pm

    EUROPEAN NEWS - GOVERNMENT - ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE - RURAL DEVELOPMENT - ENERGY - ENVIRONMENT
    THE GOVERNMENT LAUNCHES NEW AGRICOLTURAL POLICIES
    New tools and funding to promote development,economic growth,innovation and sustainability in a strategic sector for the economy
    New policies that will make European agriculture the most developed in the region





    After approval by a large majority by the European Parliament of the large package of laws,the Government and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Policies have been able to start the Agriculture Development and Sustainability Strategy aimed to revitalize,modernize,and develop a strategic sector for the national economy,focusing on the development of agricultural enterprises,technological innovation,fairness and justice for farmers and environmental sustainability.

    It must to remember what they represent agriculture and breeding of the nation. Thanks to the exceptional development of this sector, to the European citizens is ensured food security. As a society, we can be sure that our farmers produce the food we need. They provide a wide variety of products abundant,affordable,safe and of good quality. The Europe is known worldwide for its food quality and its secular culinary traditions. With its outstanding agricultural resources,Europe can and should play a key role in ensuring food security of the entire planet.

    Agriculture is not just about food production, but also the rural communities and the people who live there, as well as our natural environment and its precious resources. In all European Regions,farmers maintain in life the countryside and rural areas and perpetuate rural lifestyles.




    Agricultural enterprises,from small and medium-sized enterprises,often family-run businesses to large,hundreds of thousands and employ millions of people. But we must also count all related areas. Number of jobs in rural areas depend on agriculture. Farmers need of machines,buildings,fuel,fertilizers and health care for their animals. So agriculture holds in life construction companies,chemical and mechanical industries,professionals of various kinds. Many people find employment in these industries 'upstream',others are involved in the 'downstream' companies,related to preparation,processing and packaging of food,and others involved in the storage, transport and retail sale of food products.

    The campaigns are not in the original natural state,but have been shaped over the centuries by agriculture,which created the variety of environments and landscapes that we know. Our space is the natural habitat of many species of animals and plants. This biodiversity is essential for the sustainable development of the countryside. The farmers manage natural space for the benefit of all of us and provide public goods,among the most important of which include the care and maintenance of the land,landscape and biodiversity. Farmers and agriculture are essential for the preservation of the natural environment and biodiversity.

    Consequently, the main objectives of the Agriculture Development and Sustainability Strategy are: to improve agricultural productivity through innovation,modernization and development,so that consumers can count on stable supplies of food at affordable prices,environmental protection,through sustainable agricultural techniques,high quality food products and energy efficiency,and ensure a decent standard of living for European farmers. The new policy, by means of instruments, and the massive investment incentives, which amount to a total of hundreds of billions of Euros, aims to achieve this goals.

    At the central level,new tools and new regulations will be managed by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies,with an apposite agency,the Agency for Agriculture Sustainment. At the local level,the new policies,funding and tools will be managed by the Regions,through specific agencies,Regional Agricolture Sustainment Agencies.


    FIRST PILLAR - PRODUCTIVE INVESTMENTS ON AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES & FOOD INDUSTRY




    Farmers play in rural areas a very important economic role,which the EU can not afford to give up. The skills instinctive and fundamental of agriculture can not be captured on the pages of a book,but are handed down from generation to generation. For this reason,the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies considers it necessary to support the development of agricultural enterprises of all types and sizes.

    The first tool available is aimed at the development and modernization of entire agricultural supply chains in specific geographic areas,which contain agricultural enterpreses (including the small and medium sized),food and agro-industries,transportation and sale companies. It is the Contract of Supply Chain. All companies involved,creating a cooperative that includes also banks and public authorities (specialized agencies,local authorities,Ministry),plan an investment operations aimed at strengthening of structures,infrastructure and equipments of the all companies,and development of all businesses. At that point,the public authorities,after careful consideration,cover part of the costs, up from 50% to 90% of total expenditure,thus delivering a public investment to the cooperative of companies. Contract of Supply Chain is a tool that lets quickly a large development of the entire agricultural supply chain, not only from the economic point of view, but also from the environmental point of view.

    The Contracts of Program fall within the negotiated programming tools provided to support employment and development through the involvement of public and private entities,such as the Ministry,Regions,local authorities,large agricultural enterprises and consortia of small and medium agricultural enterprises. The companies,which can be of different sectors and various agricultural supply chains,even in large geographical areas,develop with the support of the public, an investment plan,aimed at the development,employment support and modernization,according to close constraints of environmental sustainability. Hence public authorities shall cover,through public grants and loans,much of the costs.




    The short supply chain or short circuit, it is that particular type of business based on the direct relationship between producers (farmers) and consumers,which makes it possible to experiment with new forms of exchange,encounter, cooperation. For this reason the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies and local authorities,through the Fund for the Short Chain, are committed to massively encourage,stimulate and develop short supply chain in all agricultural sectors. In fact, the short chain brings huge benefits, including
    - The recognition of a fair value to the productions of the farmers;
    - Support for the consumption of local products in the area,resulting in stimulation of seasonal consumption and reduce the environmental impact resulting from transportation and packaging;
    - The stimulus to consumption "aware" of the consumer,which is given the opportunity to know the location of their purchases and make a substantial control on their quality;
    - The restoration of the link with the territory,also depending on the enhancement of biodiversity.

    Finally, there is an emphasis on support to small and medium-sized farms, the real backbone of the entire agricultural sector. The first tool and the Agricultural Guarantee Fund, which essentially serves to encourage investment by banks to small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises (which are generally seen as "too risky" for loans). The public authorities, namely the Ministry and local authorities will provide to companies who request a public guarantee, which then attract additional financing from banks. In practice, for every euro of guarantees provided to undertakings arrive more than 20 euro investment. The Fund has availabe more than 40 billion, then businesses will be able to get loans at least twenty times higher. For the small and medium-sized enterprise,so it is generally impossible to gain access to bank loans,the Ministry and local authorities have created the Agrarian Fund Microcredit. The Fund provides subsidized loans for the development and modernization of small agricultural enterprises in the form of micro-credit. The Agricultural Guarantee Fund and the Agrarian Fund Microcredit will provide a great development and a massive modernization of small and medium-sized farms, thus allowing greater efficiency, productivity and sustainability.


    SECOND PILLAR - INNOVATION,MODERNIZATION & FARMERS POLICIES




    The farms are generally relatively small. An average European farmer owns only 12 acres of land (equivalent to about 20 football fields) and 70% of the farms have an area of less than five hectares. Given the small size of their farms, farmers may find it difficult to obtain the best market price for their products. It sometimes happens that their efforts to improve quality and add value to products that are not rewarded by that price. The new government policy helps more and more farmers to strengthen their negotiating power towards other actors in the food chain. The European Government and the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies supports them through the Instrument for Agricultural Cooperatives (which provides a massive technical and financial assistance),by encouraging:
    • the establishment of producer organizations: these allow farmers to form associations and cooperatives for collective sale of their products and to exert more market power in the food chain,
    • Other forms of cooperation,in order to give the farmers greater market power and increase profit margins and competitiveness,
    • specialized types of production,such as biological agriculture  
    • contractual relationships along the food chain,
    • the creation of mutual funds and schemes insurance to allow farmers to respond more effectively to situations of market instability or to rapid price declines.

    The Ministry and local authorities,through the Instrument for Young Enterprise and Farmers Training, support the establishment of young farmers and young companies through financing for the purchase of land,machineries and facilities. It also provides grants for the training of new operators and farmers already settled with the latest technical methods of production. The need to encourage young farmers and to ensure continuity from one generation to another is a real challenge for rural development in the Europe,that the Government wants to overcome. In some regions of Europe where agriculture is particularly difficult,for example in hilly,mountainous, and / or remote zones,it is important to keep life in local communities. The Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies and the local authorities,through the Fund for Disadvantaged Areas provides the necessary instruments and loans to ensure that rural communities in vulnerable areas remain in good economic conditions, to ensure the development and modernization of local businesses.




    The new agricultural policies help farmers be more productive and improve their technical skills. First, the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies,through specific government agencies,will engage in massive activities for research and development in the agricultural sector,committing several tens of billions of investments (both public and private),and cooperating with private operators and and research organizations. In addition, through the Fund for Agricultural Innovation, the Ministry and local authorities will support, will stimulate and encourage massively, by farmers:
    • adopt methods that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases,
    • use environmentally friendly farming techniques,
    • comply with the rules in the fields of health, environment and animal welfare,
    • produce and market specialty foods of their regions,
    • make more productive use of forests and wooded areas,
    • develop new uses for agricultural products in areas such as cosmetics, medicine and crafts.

    The modernization of agricultural holdings is a key objective for the agricultural policies goernative, and, in fact, the Ministry, in cooperation with local authorities, has created the specific Fund for the Modernization of Agriculture. The aim is to ensure that the modernization help farmers to become economically competitive and to implement environmentally sustainable techniques. Many farmers use the funds to modernize facilities and equipment, to upgrade the infrastructure and to improve the welfare of farmed animals. The Fund will remain an important driver of change and progress: it will continue to offer farmers the opportunity to improve their businesses and, more generally, rural areas where they live. Grants and loans play a major role, but there are other ways to help farmers. The training programs and business consulting services are some of the less visible, which, however, give a valuable aid to farmers across the nation


    THIRD PILLAR - RURAL ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE




    Although agriculture is the main economic activity in most rural areas, farmers also carry out other activities. Often also deal with the transformation of their products and sell them directly to consumers. About half of the European population lives in rural areas. Without agriculture many rural communities would cease to exist, and there would simply the abandonment the land. For this reason,the new agricultural policy gives farmers a massive financial and technical assistance through the Rural Agricultural Fund. The aim is to ensure that they continue to work the land and create additional jobs through the renewal of their villages,protection of landscape and natural environment,as well as projects in the field of cultural heritage and many other tasks directly or indirectly connected with agriculture and the rural economy. Public services,such as schools,infrastructures and public health,through this Fund are mantained and improved,giving people a reason to stay in the countryside and grow there their children.

    About half of European territory is cultivated. As a result, agriculture is actually a very important element for our natural environment. Over the centuries the agriculture contributed to the creation and preservation of numerous natural habitats of great value,which today characterize the different landscapes in the nation and are home to flora and fauna extremely varied. Agriculture and nature affect each other. Thanks to the new agricultural policies our methods of production become more environmentally friendly. Nowadays, farmers must therefore play two roles: to produce our food and manage the landscape. Thanks to a new specific instrument,the Agrarian Environment Fund,which provides massive financial and technical assistance,farmers are expected to adopt environmentally friendly farming methods. In practice, this means that they must maintain permanent grassland (grass absorbs carbon dioxide, thereby helping to combat climate change), have a minimum number of crops and manage at least 85% of the arable land (the so-called 'area of ecological interest ") with methods that promote biodiversity and environmental protection,ensure the welfare of farmed animals,take care of water resources and the maintenance of the landscape. They may also receive additional support if they adopt more stringent practices in the field of agri-environment. Environmental protection and biodiversity by farmers and agriculture enterprises is also a must to access all other loans analyzed until now.


    FOURTH PILLAR - ENERGY AND AGRICULTURE




    Agriculture and Energy,clean and sustainable,are now closely linked in an inseparable pair. Of course you can not make agriculture a powerhouse for the entire nation,but you can do so that it becomes self-sufficient in terms of energy. The new government policies, guided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fostry Policies and coordinated by local authorities, are designed precisely to this.

    First of all,through the Fund for Agriculture Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,the Ministry and local authorities aim to promote the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency for farms through massive loans, tax deductions and technical assistance. These tools are aimed at the modernization of facilities,infrastructures,vehicles and equipments to make them as efficient as possible in terms of energy consumption. The Fund therefore, encourage and promote the use of renewable energy sources to ensure energy self-sufficiency to agricultural enterprises. For example,it encouraged the creation of structures for geothermal energy and district heating,the creation of small wind farms,the creation small but efficient hydroelectric plants on water infrastructure,or the installation of photovoltaic panels on the agriculture structures (barns, sheds...). For efficiency, the Fund strongly encourage the aggregation of multiple agricultural enterprises into cooperatives to support the joint management of renewable energy installations, so they can ensure energy independence for most enterprises at the same time. The financial and technical support of the Fund will contribute to making agriculture virtually autonomous from the energy point of view, and to reduce energy consumption.

    With regard to the production of energy from biomass,the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies and local authorities have created a specific tool for financial and technical support,the Fund for Biomass in Agriculture. The Fund will support the creation of biomass from agricultural enterprises especially from waste and by-products of crops, livestock and forestry. However, the new regulations impose serious limits on how much can be removed, allowing farmers to ensure procurement of biomass,but at the same time avoiding that the land remain without organic matter and without humus. With regard to forestry,the Fund will provide the tools to ensure their complete rehabilitation and sustainable management,and support their use by agricultural cooperatives. The Fund will support massively the creation of biomass power plants, biogas plants and bio-refineries for the production of heat and electricity. The new regulations provide that such structures should only be used to guarantee the energy autonomy to agricultural enterprises and,as far as possible,to the rural areas. The new regulations provide that all agricultural enterprises present in a common geographic area must meet in cooperative,that will be supported by the Fund,for the management of the facilities and of the services of production,procurement,storage and transportation of biomass. The power plants will be able to receive biomass only from agricultural enterprises within a range of 50 km,which generally will be all part of the cooperatives that manage plants themselves,to avoid too many emissions caused by transport. In this way, the farmers will be able to guarantee the energy autonomy for electricity and for heating,for their own businesses and for rural areas,while biomass plants and correlated services,generally small in size and all directly managed by farmers,with the support of local authorities,will highlight the full potential of agricultural energies.




    A word aside to be spent for the crops exclusively for biomass. The Fund for Biomass in Agriculture will support their diffosione, however, the regulations require to be included in rotation with traditional food crops and intended solely for local supply chains for biomass. The crops for biomass, in particular, may be grown on marginal land, or abandoned by time, so as not preguidicare the production of crops for food.


    FIFTH PILLAR - FOOD QUALITY




    Europe is a country internationally renowned for its wide variety of food,but especially for the high quality of food,wine and beer it produces. In fact, one of the main export items are food,and European citizens are proud of consume high quality products. All this is the result of a vast culinary cultureand gastronomic, which has its roots in the millennia. The top priority of the Government is to spread and,above all,defend the quality food products on the domestic market and on the international market,and for this reason the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies launched an innovative labeling system. This will contribute to enhancing the local culinary traditions, spreading the food quality.



    The PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) designates a food product in all its stages in a given region,with skills recognized and local ingredients,and whose characteristics are related to the geographical origin. Among the PDO include many cheeses (such as Queso Manchego,or Feta),meats (such as Prosciutto di San Daniele),olive oil (such as Umbria,Kalamata,Montoro-Adamuz),as well as fruit and vegetables and,of course,numerous wines.



    The PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) means a food whose quality or reputation is linked to a region in which it takes place at least one stage of production. As examples we can mention several beers (as Münchener Bier,Českobudějovické Pivo),meat (such as Scotch Beef,various types of poultry French),as well as bakery products and fishery products (in particular the Scottish Farmed Salmon).



    The term Traditional Specialty Guaranteed,better known by the acronym TGS,is a mark of origin aimed at protecting productions that are characterized by compositions or traditional production methods. This certification is intended for agricultural products and foodstuffs that have a "specific" related to the method of manufacture or composition linked to the tradition of the area,but that are not necessarily produced only in that area. Even a TGS preparation must conform to a precise specification.



    There is a European brand specific for organic products,the Organic Product Mark,which ensures compliance of European production standards in the field of organic farming. The latter respects the natural cycles of plants and animals,limiting as much as possible the impact of human activities on the environment and uses methods of production strictly comply with European legislation precise and rigorous.
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    Reisal
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Reisal on Sun Sep 07, 2014 9:22 am

    RESULTS FINALIZED
    Uncertainty About Future Spreads After Recount




    A Man Cleans After a Election Party

    The results of the recent referendum and gubernatorial elections in Uihtou have been finalized after a long recount. In the end, the results stayed the same -- separatist Governor Ward Tobias was re-elected and the referendum failed, creating an awkward relationship between Tobias and the people, the majority of which did not support his referendum or him. The recounted results show the Governor re-elected with 47% of the vote, beating his opponent by 2.1 percentage points and the "NO" side of the referendum won by 0.5%. The results are a major political victory for President Marko Davidovic, who said he would resign if the people of Uihotu did not want to remain apart of the Union. "If we lost, it would be a major rejection of -- me, so if the results were different, I would've resigned and let Vice President Ehrlichman lead the charge." said the President. "The results show that the people are split very evenly on whether or not they want to stay apart of Talanzaar, so I will use every day I have left in this office to make them want to stay."

    MINISTER OF DEFENSE ANNOUNCES CREATION OF
    PRISON CAMP FOR PLANITAN GANGSTERS




    Talanzaar's Minister of Defense, Martin Delore, released a statement very late at night announcing the creation of a new prison camp, specifically created to detain the new influx of gangsters arriving from Planita. "Our Government puts the safety of the people first, which is why we have created this new high-security camp that will keep prisoners locked away before we can send them away to their home nations." said Minister Delore. "Military personnel will be present there so they can use their skills to extract much-needed information from these monsters. Rest assured, the people of this nation are safe and we intend to keep it that way." said the Minister. The Minister also advised Planita to be prepared to handle prisoners born in their nation because "Talanzaar shouldn't be the one to deal with Planita's problems."
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Eurasia on Mon Sep 08, 2014 1:35 am



    EURASIA BEGINS FIVE PART CLEAN ENERGY PLAN
    Comprehensive plan aims to reduce Eurasian carbon emissions.








    The Supreme State Senate and Assembly voted today to enact the Environmental Revitalization and Protection Act of 2014, a comprehensive law that will work to reduce the Eurasian carbon footprint, as well as help to lessen the impact industrialization and pollution have had on the Eurasian environment. The law will involve a five point plan that will each act in a different way to achieve the same goal; preserving the Eurasian environment and focusing on alternative sources of power.

    The five point plan will consist of: I: Establishment of a Ministry of the Environment; II: Enactment of strict anti-pollution laws; III: Government investments into alternative energy sources; IV: Creation of "Ecological Preserves" and "Safe Areas;" V: Restricting Fossil Fuel Industries


    Point I: Establishment of a Ministry of the Environment



    To oversee the implementation and enforcement of the new laws and regulations, the Ministry of the Environment will be created. Its primary purpose will be to oversee the anti pollution procedures, as well as partnering with the Ministry of Energy to oversee the implementation of new green energy technologies. The Ministry will be headed by longtime environmental advocate Senator Themelis Suriette, and will be headquartered in New Warsaw. The Ministry will also manage the newly created ecological preserves, highlighted in point IV, with the implementation of new Environmental Officers, who will have the same authority as regular police officials.

    The Ministries initial budget will be $3 billion Kopecks, and it will have an annual budget of $1 billion Kopecks after that. While some have criticized what they see as a frivolous misuse of funds, the authors of the law have said that "Any frugality when it comes to funding would ultimately serve to work against the wishes of the Eurasian people and would harm the environment."


    Point II: Enactment of Strict Anti-Pollution Laws



    Point II involves passing strict anti pollution laws that will curb Eurasian carbon emissions. These laws, which range from emissions by factories to emissions in automobiles, will be enforced by the aforementioned Ministry of the Environment. The goal of the laws is to establish a clean air situation in Eurasia, as well as reduce the emissions from factories by 90%. The factory reductions are to take place by establishing guidelines that will be rigorously enforced, such as filtering smoke and steam emissions to remove particulate matter, filtering any liquid waste until it is habitable for aquatic animals (should it be over 50% water) or shipping it to ME (Ministry of the Environment) designated disposal sites.

    Regulations on vehicles will mainly be for the producers of automobiles instead of the consumers. All automobiles will be required to have proper exhaust filtration, and will be expected to, if they run on petroleum based fuels, ensure that the fuels have been refined so as to minimize emissions as much as possible.


    Point III: Government Investments into Alternative Energy Sources



    To encourage green and alternative energy corporations to begin operations in Eurasia, the government will begin offering unique, tailored investments into companies that use such technology. The investments will take the form of either specially designated operation zones, direct liquid funds to jump start businesses, or a reduction of the price to start a green energy company. The government has designated solar power, wind power, geothermal power, hydroelectric power, thorium based nuclear power, biofuel, and hydrogen based energy as alternative energy sources, but they are by no means limited to these sources. The Ministry of Energy has created a special Select Committee to oversee the creation of new technologies that can be added to the list.

    The government has set aside special funds to be managed by the Ministry of Energy that will be invested in green companies, which total around $50 billion kopecks. Some economists theorize that this latest venture may do wonders to get the economy moving again, as the new economic sector could provide thousands of new jobs.


    Point IV: Creation of Economic Preserves and Safe Areas



    To preserve the beauty of the Eurasian environment, the Ministry of the Environment will establish "Ecological Preserves," which will be areas of Eurasian wilderness that will be forbidden for development and tourism, and will serve only for various flora and fauna to develop. These preserves will be established in every Eurasian state and province, and will be off limits to the general population except for designated observation points, to preserve the integrity of the ecosystem. The government will take strict measures to ensure the ecosystems are protected, including enacting harsh fines for littering and disposing of waste improperly near the areas.

    The government will also build "Safe Areas," which will be areas near roadways and highways for animals to safely pass through without being killed or harmed by vehicles. These will be tunnels underneath the roadways or above them, that will be fenced in, to allow for the animals safe passage. While these will protect the animals from harm, it will also protect Eurasian drivers. Roughly 2,000 people die each year in Eurasia from crashes involving animals, and the safe areas will help to eliminate those deaths.


    Point V: Restricting Fossil Fuel Industry



    The government will finally enact tough restrictions on the fossil fuel industry. The petroleum based industries are already marginalized in Europe and Asia, and these laws will serve to allow green technology to take the role that they formerly occupied. More, the corporations are being encouraged to change their developments over to green technology. The restrictions set in place will include restricting where oil can be drilled, discouraging harmful practices like fracking, restricting where oil can be refined, and placing tough restrictions on power plants that use coal or other fossil fuels.

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    European News

    Post by United States of Europe on Wed Sep 10, 2014 10:56 pm

    EUROPEAN NEWS GOVERNMENT - ECONOMY - SPACE AFFAIRS - ENVIRONMENT - TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION - PROJECTS
    THE COPERNICUS SATELLITE SYSTEM IS ACTIVE
    The most advanced Earth observation system,which will provide accurate information about natural phenomena
    An important system for the management of the environment and for interventions in natural disasters
    Advanced technology that has enabled the development of the European productive sector



    The SENTINEL 1-A satellite in orbit


    With the launch, which took place a few days ago at the National Spaceport of New Strasbourg,of the last satellite in the constellation, the Copernicus Satellite System is officially active and ready for use. But what is it?

    Copernicus is the most ambitious Earth observation programme to date. It provide accurate,timely and easily accessible information to improve the management of the environment, understand and mitigate the effects of climate change and ensure civil security. Copernicus is the new name for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme, previously known as GMES. Copernicus provides a unified system through which vast amounts of data, acquired from space and from a multitude of in situ sensors,are fed into a range of thematic information services designed to benefit the environment, the way we live, humanitarian needs and support effective policy-making for a more sustainable future.

    This initiative is headed by the European Space Agency (ESA),in partnership with the European Environment Agency (EEA). It is one of the pillars of the space program of the European Government,the second in importance after Galileo Global Positioning System,activated a few weeks ago.

    The system consists of a constellation of 30 highly advanced satellites,with innovative tools for Earth observation. For the ground segment, has an efficient network of centers of mission control and sensors. ESA coordinates the delivery of data from upwards of satellites,while the EEA is responsible for data from airborne and ground sensors.

    The system is a jewel of the European aerospace industry,wich required tens of billions of investments. The satellites and the ground segment have been produced by a variety of European high-tech enterprises,which then had the opportunity to develop and increase investment. In addition,thanks to the space project,it was possible to create new highly specialized permanent jobs. In short,Copernicus led development and new technological know-how for the European industry, allowing a great economic growth.


    SPACE SEGMENT - Six sentinels in the space



    All Sentinel satellites


    ESA has developed a new family of missions called Sentinels Missions specifically for the operational needs of the Copernicus programme. These instruments are equipped with highly advanced technologies.

    Each Sentinel mission is based on a constellation of four satellites to fulfil revisit and coverage requirements,providing robust datasets for Copernicus services. These missions carry a range of technologies,such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring.


    SENTINEL-1 MISSION




    The ESA Sentinel-1 Mission is designed as a four-satellite constellation. The identical satellites orbit Earth 180° apart and at an altitude of almost 700 km. This configuration optimises coverage,offering a global revisit time of just six days (the satellites map the entire Earth every six days). Designed and built by a consortium of around 60 companies led by the state-owned European Aerospace Corporation,the Sentinel satellites are an outstanding example of Europe’s technological excellence.

    Each satellite,weighing 2300 kg,has been designed for a minimum lifetime of seven years in orbit. As well as the 12-m long radar,the satellites each carry two 10 m-long solar wings. During launch,the solar wings and radar are folded up for protection and to fit into the rocket fairing. After the satellite is released into space,the solar wings and radar deploy together,but in a specific sequence that takes around 10 hours to complete. The sequence is unique,choreographed to ensure that both deploy in the safest possible way. The sequence also allows power from the wings to be available as soon as possible so that the satellite is independent.

    The Sentinel 1 Mission will benefit numerous services. For example,services that relate to the monitoring of Arctic sea-ice extent,routine sea-ice mapping,surveillance of the marine environment,including oil-spill monitoring and ship detection for maritime security,monitoring land-surface for motion risks,mapping for forest,water and soil management and mapping to support humanitarian aid and crisis situations. The design of Sentinel-1 with its focus on reliability,operational stability, global coverage and quick data delivery is expected to enable the development of new applications and meet the evolving needs of Copernicus.


    SENTINEL-2 MISSION




    The four satellites of Sentinel-2 Mission will routinely deliver high-resolution optical images globally. Sentinel-2 will carry an optical payload with visible near infrared and shortwave infrared sensors comprising 13 spectral bands: 4 bands at 10 m,6 bands at 20 m and 3 bands at 60 m spatial resolution (the latter is dedicated to atmospheric corrections and cloud screening),with a swath width of 290 km. The 13 spectral bands guarantee consistent time series,showing variability in land surface conditions and minimising any artefacts introduced by atmospheric variability.

    Data from Sentinel-2 will benefit services associated with, for example,land management by European and national institutes, the agricultural industry and forestry, as well as disaster control and humanitarian relief operations. Imagery for the generation of high-level operational products,such as land-cover maps,land-change detection maps and geophysical variables that use,for example,leaf area index,leaf chlorophyll content and leaf water content will be provided. Images of floods, volcanic eruptions and landslides will also be acquired by Sentinel-2. In essence,Sentinel-2 combines a large swath,frequent revisit,and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at high-spatial resolution and with a large number of spectral bands, all of which makes a unique mission to serve Copernicus.


    SENTINEL-3 MISSION




    The four satellites Sentinel-3 Mission's main objective is to measure sea-surface topography,sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. Near-realtime data will be provided for ocean forecasting, sea-ice charting, and maritime safety services needing accurate and timely measurements of the state of the ocean surface, including surface temperature,ocean ecosystems,water quality and pollution monitoring. Land services to monitor land-use change, forest cover,photosynthetic activity,soil quality and fire detection will also benefit significantly from Sentinel-3.


    SENTINEL-4 / SENTINEL-5 MISSIONS




    The Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 Missions (each with four satellites) are dedicated to monitoring the composition of the atmosphere for Copernicus atmosphere services. Both missions will be carried on highly advanced and technological meteorological satellites. The Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 Missions will provide information on atmospheric variables in support of European policies. Services will include the monitoring of air quality, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation, and climate monitoring.


    GROUND SEGMENT




    As well as the challenging task of building and launching a satellite,the success of an Earth observation mission relies on being able to operate the satellite from the ground and ensure that the data gathered are of good quality and made readily available to users.
    To achieve this,a flight control centre with an antenna to send commands to the satellite is needed,together with at least one ground station to receive the  data as they are 'downlinked' from the satellite as it passes overhead. Facilities for data processing, storage and distribution are also needed.
    Last but not least, the quality of the data and the performance on the satellite sensors have to be monitored continuously. If need be, action, such as 'calibration activities', have to be carried out promptly,guaranteeing the overall performance of the mission. These functions are all ensured by the ground segment.


    CORE GROUND SEGMENT


    The Sentinel Core Ground Segment allows all Sentinel data to be acquired systematically,processed and distributed. It includes elements for monitoring and controlling the Sentinel satellites and for downloading, processing and disseminating the data to the users. It also has mechanisms for monitoring and controlling the quality of the data products, as well as facilities for data archiving. The infrastructure is 'distributed',meaning that although the various centres (ESA owned) are in different places in Europe,and they are linked and coordinated. Despite the complexity of the system, users are offered a single virtual access point for locating and downloading the products.

    The main elements are:
    - Flight Operations Segment (FOS) –  responsible for all aspects of Sentinels flight operations,including monitoring and control,the execution of all platform activities and command of payload schedules.
    - Core Ground Stations – where the Sentinels data are downlinked and products are generated in near-real time. A network of X-band radar ground stations allows data to be downlinked.
    - Processing and Archiving Centres (PACs) – where systematic non-time-critical data processing is performed. All data products are archived for online access by users. A network of PACs supports all the processing and archiving of Sentinels data.
    - Mission Performance Centres (MPCs) – responsible for calibration,validation,quality control and end-to-end system performance assessment. The MPCs include expert teams for specific calibration and validation,offline quality control and algorithm correction, and evolution activities.
    - Sentinel Precise Orbit Determination Facility (POD) – makes use of the GNSS receiver data on the Sentinels to deliver the orbital information needed to generate the data products.
    - Copernicus Space Component Wide Area Network (CSC WAN) – allows all products and auxiliary data to be carried across the various ground segment facilities and provides disseminated data products to the end users.




    COPERNICUS SPACE COMPONENT DATA ACCES SYSTEM


    The overall space capacity, beyond the single missions, is coordinated through the Copernicus Space Component Data Access System. This is carried out in agreement with contributing data providers.  The system provides comprehensive and coordinated access to space data, to:
    - link transparently the different data providers and the various Copernicus services using specific coordinating functions;
    - create synergy and sustainability across the various contributing missions;
    - access a simplified interface for advertisements and the service desk rather than using multiple data provider interfaces.

    The system is the hub of an interoperable network of distributed European ground segments stations contributing to Copernicus,culminating in a harmonised,one-stop-shop for users. Data and services are accessible in the form of datasets, which are pre-defined collections of coherent (single and/or multimission) products that are derived from service requirements after trade-off considering the overall capacity of the space component. The system is managed by ESA as an integral part of the Copernicus Satellite System.


    SENTINEL COLLABORATIVE GROUND SEGMENT


    The Sentinel Collaborative Ground Segment complements the exploitation of the Sentinel Missions in a number of areas, such as:
    - Data acquisition and (near-) realtime production. Local ground stations are configured to receive Sentinel data as the satellite passes overhead.
    - Complementary products and algorithm definitions – these ‘collaborative data products’ may be tailored for regional coverage or specific applications. These types of products may extend the Sentinel core product chains.
    - Data dissemination and access, supporting redistribution of Sentinel core products by establishing additional pick-up points.
    - Development of innovative tools and applications.  
    - Complementary support to calibration/validation activities.


    COPERNICUS SERVICES




    Copernicus is all about delivering products and services to manage and protect the environment and natural resources, and ensure civil security. The monitoring capacity of Copernicus will be used for the benefit of both Europe and the international community.

    Copernicus will provide services for a range of different applications such as air-quality forecasting, flood warnings, early detection of drought and desertification, early warnings of severe weather, oil-spill detection and drift prediction, sea-water quality, crop analysis, forest monitoring, land-use change, agriculture, food security and humanitarian aid – to name but a few.
    Copernicus services will provide essential information for six main domains: ocean, land and atmosphere monitoring, emergency response, security and climate change.
    - Services relevant to the marine environment include monitoring for marine safety and transport,oil-spill detection,water quality, weather forecasting and the polar environment.
    - Services relevant to the land environment include monitoring for water management, agriculture and food security,land-use change, forest monitoring, soil quality, urban planning and natural protection services.
    - Services relevant to the atmospheric include monitoring for air quality and ultraviolet radiation forecasts, greenhouse gases and climate forcing.
    - Services for emergency management response will help mitigating the effects of natural and manmade disasters such as floods, forest fires and earthquakes and contribute to humanitarian aid exercises.
    - Services for security will support peace-keeping efforts, maritime surveillance and border control.

    Services for monitoring climate change cross-cut all of the above domains.
    Copernicus services provide standardised multi-purpose information common to a broad range of application areas relevant to European policies,many of which are implemented at local or regional levels aiming at sustainability.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Australian Eltebena on Sun Sep 14, 2014 4:44 pm

    Referendum To Form a New Nation and governmental system


    Proposed new flag

    While much of the Eltebian Government's focus has been on foreign policy recently, the long expected referendum to create a new nation and governmental system has finally been announced. The new proposed nation name will be the Republic of Australasian States. The Referendum will be held on the 21 September 2014 with recent opinion polls showing strong support. The details regarding the new nation have been posted on the government websites 'www.eltebena.gov.eb' and 'www.australasianstates.gov.au'. Further Reports coming soon!
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Federation of Antanares on Tue Sep 16, 2014 2:59 am

    NEWS FROM ANTANARES


    Healthcare of the Federation first in the Esamir


    According to the last analysis and census, the healthcare system of the Federation confirmed its primacy in all the Esamir. Vaunt of the welfare system of Antanares and thanks to special funds destined to the renovation of the implant and the expansion of some of the major hospital hub, the system can provide one of the best service of the region, totally free and totally reserved for the citizens of Antanares. Only the hospital system counts on an efficient customer service that help the people to orientate in the vast world of the hospital, with guide, informations and simple human help.
    With the special funds of the Bruma destined to the healthcare system, the entire assemble of main and secondary hospital can count on support of specialist to help the patients to affront their cure, with serious and qualified medics that arrive from all the nation, from the best university of medicine.
    The system, also, is supported from a large network of private and public companies and laboratories that studies every day new treatments and medicinals to provide to the population of the country, every day, even free, thanks to the subsidies of the government.


    "We are proud of what we become" said Doctor Emil Frekarin, head physician in the main hospital of Targahar, the Targahar State General "Saint and Demon" "We are proud of our structures, of our instruments and of our staff. We are the top and we provide the top cures for out patients. All the patients, despite their rank or their economical status. We don't make difference whit the life in game"
    Recently, the entire welfare state was accused to be one of the main expenditure of the federal budget, and under attack was mainly the healthcare system, probably the one that request more funds from the government. After the decision of the Bruma to send more money to the hospital system, exponents of the right-wing of the Bruma protested for the decision and voting against the three laws enacted after four days of serrated conflicts between the parliamentarians. According to the office of the spokesperson of the Bruma and of the Council, His Highness and his councillors started a series of consultations with specialist to affront the problem of the budget of the healthcare system, maintaining, at the same time, the efficiency and the gratuitousness of the system. Using the regional division of the last constitution, probably the government will divide the budget between the region, granted autonomy in the direction of the system.


    Main building of the hospital hub of Velikogovolka
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Reisal on Tue Sep 16, 2014 8:13 am

    Liberal Party Dominates Polls




    A long while after the election, polls show incumbent Liberal Prime Minister Glenn Mulroney holding an astounding 29 point lead over the Conservatives, who recently nominated Phil Michel as the new leader, replacing ousted Prime Minister Kedar Otto. If an election was held today, Liberals would win a majority Government with 47% of the vote, followed by the Conservatives at 28% of the vote, then the Social Democrats with 13% of the vote and the Libertarians - at their all time low - with 8% of the vote. This is a huge swing for the Liberals, who won 33% of the vote in the most recent election. But many are asking if the lead will fade away once the popular Glenn Mulroney eventually resigns and runs for President. Will the Liberals maintain their lead throughout the session? Will the Conservatives distance themselves from the President and bite back? Or will the Social Democrats and Libertarians surprise everyone? We've still got a long way to go . . .
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Australian Eltebena on Sun Sep 21, 2014 12:28 pm

    Referendum Partially Successful
    The votes have been tallied up and it is clear that an overwhelming amount of the population does not want its nation to be known as 'The Republic of Australasian States'.


    However a small majority have said yes to the Eltebena's name being changed to 'Australian Eltebena'.


    A majority have also supported the change in Eltebena's flag.


    The proposed new system of government has also been rejected by 51% of the voting population. Voting was compulsory.

    Changes to the Flag and name of the nation will be made within a few hours.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Mon Sep 22, 2014 7:50 am

    Tensions in North Macwick increase.


    As King John VII lies dying a political crisis is developing.



    There are huge tensions in the First Minister William Grenville’s coalition ministry of 89-ers, Liberals and Radicals as the leader of the Radicals Joseph Chamberlain has proposed radical electoral reform – ending 10 year Parliaments reducing them to 7 years, abolishing the need to have a general election on the ascension of a new king, and abolishing the electoral register test.



    This is to forestall the main opposition the Monarchists who are calling for governmental reform to restore a leading role for the monarch in government. It is well know that the Crown Prince Charles supports this agenda and has often called on people to vote for Monarchist candidates in elections.

    There are fears that the coalition ministry of 89-ers, Liberals and Radicals, which has been in government for the whole of the forty years of King John VII’s reign, will not be asked to form a new government when the Crown Prince succeeds to the crown. These fears are partly based on the fact that the 89-ers (the grouping lead by William Grenville) have lost seats in each of the last three general elections.

    The First Minister has called for calm during this difficult time.



    In other news the Archbishop Thomas Cranmer has stated that church attendances are increasing during the crisis and he expects that next Sunday they will top the 50 million a fifteen year high.

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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Reisal on Mon Sep 22, 2014 11:44 am

    Pundits Give President "Lame Duck" Status

    Talanzaar's media is filled with many pundits and talking heads - all of whom with different viewpoints on political matters. Some of these talking heads are extremely right-wing, calling for invasions of other nations while left wing pundits propose Talanzaar becoming a communist nation, even going as far as creating a petition to call the Prime Minister "Chairman of the Communist-Liberal Party". But if there is one thing the talking heads agree on, its that President Marko Davidovic is now a lame-duck President.

    Since being re-elected, President Davidovic sponsored a handful of bills to deliver on his campaign promises. He was could've easily pushed both in with the Conservative Majorities in Congress but decided to wait. His laziness backfired as the Liberal-Social Democrat collation swept both Congresses and blocked a wave of Conservative bills.

    Lame duck Presidents tend to have less political power, as other elected officials, especially the Prime Minister, are less inclined to cooperate with them. However, lame ducks are also in the peculiar position of not facing the consequences of their actions in a subsequent election, giving them greater freedom to issue unpopular decisions or appointments. But, in President Davidovics case, his approval rating has covered around the upper 40s despite many people feeling the country is on the right track and the economy is strong.



    The Presidents Approval Rating, Seen in the Chart Above, Has Reached a Record Low

    A president elected to a second term, like Davidovic, is sometimes seen as being a lame duck from early in the second term, because presidents are barred from contesting a term four years later, and is thus freer to take politically unpopular action. Nonetheless, as the de facto leader of the Conservative Party, the president's actions affect how the party performs in the midterm elections two years into the second term, and, to some extent, the success of that party's nominee in the next presidential election four years in the future.

    When asked about this, President Davidovic laughed and said "Why, this administration is just getting started! We've got a crime crisis to address and the last thing we need is to sit around doing nothing. We've got loads of work to do still and Congress better get to work too." President Davidovic only has a short while until the next Presidential Election.




    Plantian Gangs Target "Tough-on-Crime" Governors

    Governor Bruce Altschuler, above, has become a target for gangs

    Some state officials are fearing for their lives as the drug-dealing, murderous Plantian gang "Crysis" continues to settle down in Talanzaar's darkest corners and threatens the lives of Governors who are "Tough on Crime".

    "Cyrsis", a terrorist gang from Plantia, has spread its multi-million dollar drug-dealing black market franchise to Talanzaar south-east regions, arriving on boats from Plantia. They have utilized social-media to let the nation know a simple message, "We are here". Crysis has created a large interested in the population and their social media pages and fear-mongering videos are being watched by the millions. They post daily, posting anti-police and anti-government material in a attempt to garner public sympathy. One video even showed a Crysis member saying he only trades his cannabis to "sick children who need it". Crysis has already become feared in Talanzaar and is slowly overtaking other gangs to become the largest gang in Talanzaar, despite coming from Plantia.

    Recently, on social media, they have listed 8 Governors as "weed-hating dictators" and threatened their lives after those 8 Governors all introduced new tough-on-crime legislation in response to the rising gang threat. The legislation push was lead by Governnor Bruce Altschuler (L) who's state currently has the most Crysis members, according to some estimates.
    "It is our state that is facing the biggest challenge from these savages, and rest assured, we will get rid of them once and for all!" said Altschuler. "This new anti-crime legislation was passed with bi-partisan support and will make sure justice hits these monsters like a wall of bricks!"

    Crysis later specifically called out the Governor, promising to "behead him and stuff him with cocaine", a bizarre threat, but on that has been taken seriously by State Police.

    "We are obviously aware of this problem. The Governors security has always been strong and this is only gonna make it stronger" said a spokesmen for state troopers. The other 7 Governors have also reportedly been "fearing for their lives" as Crysis continues to scare the people of Talanzaar.

    Other News in Talanzaar
    Plantian Gangs Packed on Ships, Waiting to Be Deported
    "Plantian Gang members of "Crysis" have been identified and those born in Plantia are going to be sent back to Plantia. Simple as that." said the Secretary of Defense. Its not our job to spend millions creating new jails to deal with their criminals. Transport ships are ready, criminals are loaded and the first batch is ready to go, this is just a heads up for Plantia's Government."

    State Department Calls For Calm in North Macwick
    The State Department urges both sides of the political tensions going on the North Macwick "come to a speedy and long-lasting solution" to the tensions arising there. The President also said he would like to create new partnerships with that nations and hopes a new alliance between Talanzaar and North Macwick will form before his term ends.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Thu Sep 25, 2014 11:24 am

    Foreign Minister’s trip to Talanzaar a success


    Minister of Foreign Affairs Charles Fox has returned from Okriana City, Talanzaar after signing a free trade agreement with Talanzaar. It was also agreed that North Macwick would open an embassy in Talanzaar and that Talanzaar would open one in Brythornburgh.

    On his return Charles Fox has stated that he would like to see more of these bilateral agreements and he would be raising the matter of international trade with the department of Business and Industry and hoped that Joseph Chamberlain would find the time to get involved. He also stated that he would like North Macwick to consider if it should join IFTA (International Free Trade Association).


    As IFTA is based in Ireland he also suggested it might be worth him travelling to Ireland to discuss trade with newly elected President Aldric Burgsman and his new government.

    Update on King John VII’s health


    The Official Announcement from the Palace has stated that King John’s condition is stable but serious and everything that can be done is being done.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Fri Sep 26, 2014 8:45 am

    Call for Regency Act


    Louis Ambroise leader of the Monarchists has moved a bill in Parliament to make the Crown Prince Charles Regent with the power to give or deny royal assent to bills passed by Parliament and the power to dissolve Parliament for any reason.


    Louis Ambroise leader of the Monarchists

    Joseph Chamberlain leader of the Radicals has stated he is calling on his supporters to vote against this unneeded bill. He stated that King John was physically ill but his mental capacity has not been affected and he can still give his own assent to bills and carry out the legislative functions of the monarchy.

    Robert Jenkinson leader of the Conservatives called on First Minister William Grenville, who was absent during the debate to publish the most recent medical report on King John’s health so Parliament can made an informed decision. He also often referred to the empty places of most of the 89-er members of the Cabinet.


    Robert Jenkinson leader of the Conservatives

    The bill passed its first reading 118 to 59 with most members of parliament abstaining as in normal on first readings.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by Fascesia on Fri Sep 26, 2014 11:33 pm

    Modernized Armament finally handed over



    A delivery of Arms was ordered since approx. 3 years by the Capitalist Regime. In these days the army was half as large as now, furthermore, after the National Legions took power, the police forces and armed forces were combined and equipment got standardized. This caused a retardation due to massive miscalculation. After all, the weapons got delivered to the army and soon every soldier will be brought up to date.

    These are the newly designed arms delivered to the National Legions:

    Main Weapon:
    Spoiler:

    Service Rifle - HFNF Mod. 14


    Sniper Rifle:
    Spoiler:

    Sniper Rifle - HFNF Tir d'Élite Mod. 1220


    Machine Guns:


    Spoiler:

    P&V MSE 014


    HFNF MSE Mod. 14


    Special Purpose Weapons:


    Spoiler:

    Automatic Shotgun - HFNF FDCH Mod. 1284


    Automatic Grenade Launcher - P&V Lan G Mod 014

    The companies which are producing these weapons are: Harqvart Fabrique Nationale des Fusils and Fusils Paquard & Vilette. These are the two only international relevant small-arms producers of Fascesia. The replacement of military Hardware like jets, tanks and other will take place in the next few months. The costs amount to nearly 10 billion ₣. That is why new taxes got raised and the international bank and its prperty got nationalized.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Sat Sep 27, 2014 12:25 pm

    A busy day in North Macwick’s Parliament


    Parliamentary statement of Charles Fox


    Charles Fox made a Parliamentary statement regarding his recent visit to Okriana City, Talanzaar and the signing of a free trade agreement with Talanzaar. He stated that this agreement will give a huge boost to our major industries of Trout farming, Basket weaving and Gambling and this will help our balance of payment problem. He also stated that North Macwick should not fear Talanzaar’s major industries of Information Technology, Tourism and Soda Sales. In fact our own tourist industry will learn from Talanzaar’s.

    The Conservative’s foreign affairs spokesperson Robert Stewart asked how the government was going to fund the cost of this free trade agreement. What taxes were they going to increase to provide the revenue that had come from the tariffs paid by Talanzaar’s exporters? There were calls from the government side for Robert Steward to affirm that if the Conservatives were in power they would honour the new trade treaty with Talanzaar.


    Robert Stewart Conservative foreign affairs spokesperson

    Parliamentary statement of William Grenville


    The First Minister William Grenville made a statement on the health of King John VII. He said he had spent nearly an hour with the king this morning and he was very lucid and shown no signs of mental health problems. He also stated that the King normally had three or four hours a days when he could conduct business and he felt there was no need for the Crown Prince to take on the duties of the king as this time. King John expressed his hope that Parliament would make the right decision, but wouldn’t be drawn on what he wanted Parliament to agree to. William Grenville stated that the government would be moving an amendment to the Regency Bill at second reading.

    There are rumours that during William Grenville’s visit to the palace he had tried to discover if the king would if his coalition split up call on Robert Jenkinson the leader of the Conservatives (and the largest party in Parliament) to form a coalition. As yet no one has stated if these rumours are true or if King John would ask Robert Jenkinson to form a government in the event that William Grenville’s government collapsed.

    Second reading of the Reform Bill


    Joseph Chamberlain moved his Reform Bill for its second reading pointing out that North Macwick’s fragile democracy needed protecting and strengthening and his bill does that. There are two main clauses to his bill; the first one sets a fixed term for Parliament of 7 years, abolishes the right of the monarch to dissolve parliament and call a new election early and the ending of a parliament by the death of the monarch; the second abolishes the electoral register test and makes every citizen over 21 eligible to be on the electoral register so long as they can prove they live in North Macwick.

    Lots of amendments to this bill had been tabled.

    Robert Dundas on behalf of the Conservatives moved an amendment to abolish the residency requirement for being on the electoral register and to replace it with a requirement to own or rent property of at least 20,000 Franks no matter where they live.
    This amendment was defeated 299: 275


    Robert Dundas

    Louis Ambroise, leader of the Monarchists proposed amending the bill so that only citizens who owned out-right with no debts or mortgages property of at least 20,000 Franks could register to vote.
    This amendment was defeated 299: 132

    Luke Alman, leader of the Clericalists proposed that there should be plural voting and the owners of each property worth 20,000 Franks or more would be entitled to the vote and the owners could appoint a proxy to vote on their behalf.
    This amendment was defeated 299: 119


    Luke Alman, leader of the Clericalists

    Charles Fox, leader of the Liberals proposed adding a new clause to ensure that voting would have to be carried out in secret and not at the discretion of each returning officer.
    Joseph Chamberlain accepted this amendment to his bill and so no vote was needed.

    Charles Watson-Wentworth a member of the 89-ers and the government proposed adding a sub-clause to allow the monarch to dissolve Parliament whenever they wished.
    This amendment was agreed 301: 286


    Charles Watson-Wentworth Minister without Portfolio

    The Bill was passed on its second reading as amended 299: 288

    It is rumoured that Joseph Chamberlain is now calling on the First Minister to sack Charles Watson-Wentworth from his cabinet position.
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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Sun Sep 28, 2014 7:04 am

    William Grenville’s government in disarray


    Second reading of the Regency Bill


    Louis Ambroise, leader of the Monarchists, proposed the Regency Bill for its second reading in Parliament and First Minister William Grenville moved an amendment. The proposed bill would make Crown Prince Charles Regent and he would, once it had the royal assent, have all the powers of the monarch. The amendment was a delaying clause that delayed the transfer of powers until one of the following events happen:
    That King John VII falls into a coma,
    That he is assessed by two doctor qualified to make the assessment that he no longer has the mental capacity to understand and carry out the duties of monarch
    That he is only capable of carrying out the duties of the monarch for less than one hour a day (again as assessed by two doctors).

    Robert Jenkinson, leader of the Conservatives and Luke Alman, leader of the Clericalists both spoke against the amendment, while Charles Fox, leader of the Liberals and in a surprising move, Arthur Henderson, leader of the Socialists spoke in favour of the amendment. It also came as a surprise that Jeremy Ashdown the minister for Employment and a Liberal spoke against the amendment stating he would abstain. This was soon followed by David Laws another Liberal saying he would abstain as well. Very late in the debate Charles Watson-Wentworth, Minister without Portfolio and a longtime 89-er also stated he would be abstaining and calling on his friends to do the same.

    The government amendment was defeated: 282:284

    The bill passed its second reading 304:282.

    Government Cabinet reshuffle


    Joseph Chamberlain immediately resigned from the government and called on his fellow Radicals all to resign. They all did accept Nick Harvey who is currently outside the country visiting New Tarajan.

    With the resignation of most of the Radicals from the government, William Grenville’s ministry is now a minority one.

    It is understood that there were discussions between the 89-ers and the Conservatives with a view of bring the Conservatives into the government, but negotiations failed over a few issues. It is understood that the Conservatives would not serve under William Grenville as First Minister if they were the only two parties involved in the government but would serve in a three party coalition with the Liberals, but the Liberals wouldn’t agree to the Conservative condition of the ending of all discussions regarding free trade agreements with foreign countries. It is also understood that Charles Fox refused to provide any names to fill governmental positions and told his fellow Liberals to refuse to be moved and for none of his backbenchers to accept a government position. However not all Liberals followed this request.

    It has been announced that George Spencer (89-er) will be promoted from Deputy Business and Industry Minister to Business and Industry Minister. That John Simon (Liberal) will be moved from Minister of Education to Minister for the Environment. (This has been seen as another move by John Simon to distance himself from Charles Fox) and in a very surprising move David Laws (Liberal) has been moved straight into the Cabinet as Minister of Education. Henry Labouchere (89-er) was promoted from Deputy Minister for Employment to Minister for Local Government. George Goschen (89-er) was appointed Junior Finance Minister, Hugh Grosvenor (89-er) was appointed Deputy Business and Industry Minister, Henry James (89-er) was appointed Deputy Minister for Employment and George Campbell (89-er) was appointed Deputy Minister of Agriculture.


    John Simon Minister for the Environment


    David Laws Minister of Education


    Henry Labouchere Minister for Local Government
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    European News

    Post by United States of Europe on Mon Sep 29, 2014 12:18 am

    EUROPEAN NEWS - GOVERNMENT - ECONOMY - DEFENSE - TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION - PROJECTS


    CAME INTO SERVICE THE NEW "CARTHAGE CLASS" MULTI MISSION DESTROYER
    Highly advanced technologies,interoperability,efficency,high survivability,extreme lethality,all characteristics of the ship that will reign over the seas in the coming years




    The new European Navy ship will be known as the ENS "Carthage Class" Multi Mission Missile Destroyer,named in honor of the great city that dominated the seas thousands of years ago. It will be one of the most sophisticated warship in naval history and will be sailing with the European fleet in the coming years. The firs unit has already entered into service in the afternoon yesterday in the New Strasbourg Naval Station,where he embarked for the first operational mission. There are 45 total units in the program, which will be undertaken at regular rhythms in the near future.

    The Carthage Class Destroyer is a key part of the Navy's 21st Century Surface Combatant Program, initiated by Navy planners several years ago,to conceive of warships capable of delivering next-generation functionality. The Program describes a family of ships designed to fight more effectively in littoral operations, which are those conducted close to the shore. At the same time,new ships will need to function equally well out in the open ocean. The key is versatility,with ships in the new family able to handle virtually any mission,from wartime missions in land attack and undersea warfare to noncombatant evacuations to presence, escort and diplomatic missions.

    The unit cost of the ships is the stratospheric figure of two billion three hundred million euro, due to the highly advanced technology that employs the ship, certainly not the cheapest on the market. The ships are being built in the technologically advanced and efficent shipyards of the state-owned European Shipbuilding Corporation. The project cost was far higher, according to official sources, more than 15 billion total investment. The phase of research and development has involved various government agencies of the Ministry of Defence,the entire shore establishment of the Navy,as well as the huge state-owned European Naval Systems Corporation,an advanced and developed company that deals with the development and production of highly innovative naval engineering and systems,including weapons. The project involved dozens of private companies, from the largest to a vast network of small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as several research institutions, both public and private. The Carthage Class in short,in addition to a great advancement of European naval power,have brought a great leap forward in naval technology,engineering and armament know-how for the European productive sector,which will lead Europe to be a global leader in these areas. The project has also led the development and growth for dozens of companies, and has led to the creation of thousands of jobs,stable and highly specialized.


    DESIGN REQUIREMENTS




    The Carthage Class has been designed specifically to participate in both traditional military engagements,as well as those that might arise as part of the global war on terrorism. Like destroyers in the "Arleigh-Burke Class", the Carthage will be multi-mission,capable of providing forward deterrence and presence, and an integral part of joint and combined expeditionary forces. But unlike today's destroyers,the primary mission of the new ships will be land attack support for ground forces. In fact, one of its most important requirements didn't come from the Navy, but from the Europan Marine Corps,which requested that the Navy provide 24/7,all-weather,long-range missile-firing capabilities in support of amphibious operations. That means the Carthage will need to operate efficiently in shallow coastal waters - not in quick, hit-and-run missions, but in engagements that may last days or weeks. Having a persistent presence in littoral areas is one of the most important design requirements of the Carthage Class Destroyers. Now let's look at some of the ship's other requirements,as outlined by Navy planners:

    -SURVIVABLE-
    While cruising in hostile waters near an enemy's coastline,the Carthage can expect attacks from cruise missiles and small boats. Clearly,it will effectively defend against these threats,as well as those from submarines and surface mines. It will also have systems in place to minimize damage caused by missile strikes.

    -STEALTH-
    It may seem impossible to make a 600-foot long ship invisible to the enemy,but that's one of the Carthage's most important requirements. That means the ship will have technologies to dampen engine noise and reduce the amount of electromagnetic energy (radar and infrared,for example) that it reflects to enemy detectors. On enemy radar, the ship will appear as a small fishing boat.

    -POWERFUL-
    From the beginning,Navy planners envisioned the Carthage Class as an all-electric ship to meet ever-increasing power demands. Approximately 80 megawatts of electricity - nearly 10 times the power available on today's "Arleigh-Burke Class" - will power all of the major systems of the ship,including gun turrets. The electric motor designed to power the propellers will be one of the most advanced in the world,capable of maintaining a top speed of 30 knots.

    -LETHAL-
    While the 16-inch guns of today's European battleships have performed well in supporting ground troops,the Carthage Class Destroyer will be even more lethal. It will fire more rapidly,with greater range and with much greater precision. If the ship can generate enough power (and, as an all-electric ship, it should),it will probably include an electromagnetic rail gun,a weapon that uses a magnetic field powered by electricity to accelerate a projectile up to 52,493 feet (16,000 meters) per second.

    -FULLY INTEGRATED-
    The Carthage Class will feature an open IT architecture,making it easier to use off-the-shelf software and to promote interoperability. Contractors who help the Navy develop the various systems of the ship will work within this single IT framework to make sure all hardware and software is fully integrated.

    -EFFICENCY-
    The Carthage Class will cost a great deal to build,but it will be one of the most efficient ships to operate. Many of its critical systems are fully automated,requiring a smaller crew to keep the ship operational. Its fuel-efficient power system also reduce fuel costs.


    PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES





    To make sure the requirements outlined in the previous two sections are met,the Carthage Class will feature numerous innovations never before seen on a warship. Here are some of the most critical technologies being built into the new class destroyer. The low,angular deckhouse gives the Carthage Class Destroyer a sleek,modern look quite unlike any warship that has come before it. This distinctive appearance is only enhanced by the ship's hull,which slopes inward from above the waterline. Known as a "tumblehome" hull,this feature allows the ship to slice cleanly through waves, optimizing speed and maneuverability while decreasing acoustic and infrared signatures.

    -WEAPONS & FIREPOWER-
    The firepower of the Carthage will be formidable. At the heart of the ship's weapons systems is something called the Advanced Gun System,or AGS,a pair of 155-mm guns capable of firing Long Range Land Attack Projectiles (LRAPs). An LRAP is a GPS-guided shell that can provide a higly precision strike on a target located as far as 100 miles away. Six hundred LRAPs can be fired from Carthage Class Destroyers in 30 minutes,giving the ship true rapid-fire capabilities that exceed those provided by the twelve 155-mm howitzers present on "Arleigh-Burke Class".
    In addition the Carthage Class also features 80 vertical missile launchers staggered around the ship's perimeter. Each launching system comes with modular electronic architecture,making it easy to accommodate both existing and future missiles for land attack,anti-ship,anti-submarine and anti-air warfare. Each system is also self-contained and fully armored to limit and isolate battle damage.
    Finally,two 57-millimeter close-range guns fire 220 rounds per minute from the bow of the ship. Both guns fold down and tuck away for stealth.

    -RADAR-
    The dual-band radar of the Carthage Class integrates S-band and X-band radar capabilities in a single system. X-band radar operates on a wavelength of 2.5-4 cm and a frequency of 8-12 GHz. Because of its smaller wavelength,X-band radar is more sensitive and can detect smaller objects. S-band radar operates on a longer wavelength,about 8-15 cm and a frequency of 2-4 GHz. This higher frequency radar will improve the ability of the destroyer to track aircraft and missiles and to counterattack shore-based gun or missile batteries that attempt to strike the ship.

    -DESIGN-
    Look at a typical battleship,and you'll see an array of spinning dishes and antennas sitting atop a high-profile mast. Unfortunately,this design,which provides a greater area to reflect energy, makes the ship much easier to detect on enemy radar. To overcome this problem,the Carthage will integrate its communications hardware directly in the deckhouse "skin",which will be made with rugged, lightweight composites.




    -SONAR-
    Two types of sonar arrays are gathered together in a single solution known as the Integrated Undersea Warfare System. High-frequency sonar is able to detect underwater minefields, while medium-frequency sonar sniffs out submarines and torpedoes. The dual-band sonar array is located in the bow of the ship,in a bulbous compartment that provides complete 360-degree coverage of the underwater environment.

    -PROPULSION-
    Most warships today use a traditional mechanical-drive propulsion system with two separate sets of turbines - one for propulsion, the other for generating electricity for shipboard use. The drawback to this type of propulsion system is an inability to shift power to where it's needed most on the ship. Weapons, for example, can't borrow power from the propellers during battle. The Carthage Class Destroyer will overcome this problem with an Integrated Power System,or IPS. Here's how the IPS works. The ship's engines will no longer be connected to the propellers. Instead,the engines - four marine gas turbines that Navy describes as the most powerful gas turbines available today - will power generators that produce a total of 80 megawatts of electricity. That electrical power will then be distributed to most of the ship's systems and the electric motors that will drive the propellers. Because the power is centralized,it can be distributed as necessary to high-demand systems.

    -SAFETY & DAMAGE CONTROL-
    Ship designers have included an advanced damage-control system in the Carthage Class to increase response time to ship-threatening events. The system combines sensors,cameras and automated firefighting capabilities and will improve survivability while reducing the number of crew members needed for damage control.

    -CREW-
    An Horizon Class destroyer requires a crew of 330. An FREMM frigate requires 200 personnel. Because so many of its systems are automated,the Carthage Class's crew will number 140. This reduces the ship's operational costs,but it also has benefits for crew members, who will enjoy larger rooms and improved living conditions.


    LITTORAL COMBAT SHIPS,THE FUTURE IS NOW
    A new naval category,high-tech,interoperable,lethal,survivable,affordable,which will bring new capabilities for the European Navy




    The Littoral Combat Ship is the Navy's newest class of warship. The Independence Class variant is an aluminum Stabilized Slender Monohull ship and the Freedom Class Variant is a steel Double Chine Advanced Semi-Planing Monohull ship. Navy war games,fleet experiments and analytic studies determined the need for a new class of small surface combatants designed to operate in the congested near-shore region. In response, the Navy announced it would build a new generation of small, fast, and agile ships designed to neutralize small boats, quiet diesel electric submarines and mine threats found in the littorals.

    The Littoral Combat Ship would be designed as a focused-mission,modular,surface combatant smaller than a FFG but larger and more capable than a PC or MCM ship. LCS was envisioned to be an independently deployable,theater-based ship,capable of changing primary missions through modular Mission Package. Both LCS variants are capable of operating in a wide-range of environments,from the open ocean to coastal and littoral waters. LCS uses an open architecture design,modular weapons,sensor systems,and a variety of manned and unmanned vehicles to gain and sustain maritime supremacy in the littorals,assuring access to critical areas of operation. In addition to its primary mission areas of Surface Warfare (SUW),Mine Counter Measures (MCM) and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW),LCS can conduct freedom of navigation operations,theater security cooperation operations,maritime law enforcement operations,maritime counter-piracy operations,humanitarian assistance and disaster relief,search and rescue operations,maritime domain awareness patrols,and maritime security operations. The Navy has plans in the coming years,to put to sea 75 of these vessels, replacing the obsolete units of the fleet. The first Littoral Combat Ships are already operational.

    LCS is a modular,reconfigurable ship,with three types of Mission Packages: Surface Warfare (SUW) Mission Package,Mine Countermeasures (MCM) Mission Package,and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Package. The SUW Mission Package provides the capability to detect,classify,track,and engage multiple groups of small boats, and it can be configured with the Maritime Security Module (MSM) for Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO),Visit,Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS),drug and counter piracy operation. The ship’s speed,SUW Mission Package capabilities,manned and unmanned aviation assets,extend the ship’s surveillance and attack potential.
    The LCS MCM Mission Package provides mine detection,neutralization,and sweeping utilizing both helicopters and unmanned vehicles and supports joint operations conducted ahead of or concurrent with power projection forces
    The LCS ASW Mission Package is designed to provide ASW capabilities while operating in a littoral (deep and shallow) water environment. Operating in conjunction with other fleet assets,it is a force multiplier that specializes in providing first response littoral ASW capabilities,to include: ASW prosecution in shallow waters; barrier operations/sustainment of secure maneuver area; direct support to a carrier strike group (CSG),expeditionary strike group (ESG),amphibious ready group (ARG),surface action group (SAG),or maritime prepositioning forces in a littoral environment; high value unit escort;and operational deception.




    LCS will conduct most missions currently performed by the Guided Missile Frigates (FFG),Mine Countermeasures Ships (MCM) and Patrol Coastal (PC) class ships,as well as MH-53E mine-countermeasures helicopters.

    The LCS surface warfare capability is superior to other European Navy ships. The embarked armed helicopter, 30mm and 57mm guns,larger 11m RHIB,and 40+ knot sprint speed,give LCS a greater capability against Fast Attack Craft (FAC) and Fast Inshore Attack Craft (FIAC). The Littoral Combat Ships will improve this capability by extending weapons engagement range and lethality. The surface warfare warfighting capability allows LCS to cover more area, prosecute more vessels in Maritime Interdiction Operations and counter FAC/FIAC threats which make LCS a superior ship to other Navy class ships. Also,the Littoral Combat Ships are intended to serve as a general-purpose escort that would protect amphibious landing forces,supply and replenishment groups,and merchant convoys from limited threat,to perform coastal patrol,maritime interdiction/surveillance,and support of special operations forces going ashore.

    In comparison to other Navy class ship,LCS in mine counter measures operations will greatly improve the Navy’s capabilities. The mission package will provide unmanned mine hunting,taking the ship and crew out of harm’s way. Future phases will further improve Navy’s ability to find and clear minefields throughout the water column as well as in the beach landing zone.

    The anti submarine warfare configured LCS will also provide greater capability than other Navy class ships. The LCS complements and expands the detection ranges of today's Strike Group through systems such as a variable depth,continuously active sonar system. With improved detection ranges and the ability to operate sensors at increased speeds and throughout the water column,LCS will enhance the Commander's ability to maintain undersea battlespace awareness,counter quiet submarines,and protect critical Fleet assets. LCS provides this enhanced capability in littoral regions,as well as in deep water where it will perform area clearance,barrier operations,and Combat Logistic Force (CLF) escort duties.




    LCS incorporates a total ship-survivability approach that considers the capability of the ship, mission critical systems, and crew to perform warfare missions while preventing serious injury or death from effects of threat weapons. Susceptibility is defined as avoiding or defeating a threat by using a combination of tactics,signature reduction,countermeasures,and self-defense systems. LCS uses speed,maneuverability,organic systems (including 57mm gun,chaff,and RAM/SeaRAM) and sensors to counter surface,air,and underwater threats. Additionally,LCS will use its sprint speed to extend battlespace and disrupt enemy targeting. MH-60R and VTUAV will provide over-the-horizon threat detection and engagement creating an increased standoff range. Vulnerability is a measure of the ship’s ability to withstand initial damage effects from threat weapons, and its ability to continue to perform primary warfare missions. LCS is designed to vulnerability standards that allow it to continue to perform its primary mission, exit the battle area under its own power,or conduct an orderly abandon ship, depending on the severity of the threat weapon effect. Recoverability is the ability of the ship to contain and control damage, prevent loss of ship,minimize casualties,and restore primary mission capabilities. In order to contain and control damage,LCS is designed to the same compartmentation requirements as all other surface combatants. In addition,LCS has redundant damage control firefighting systems including Aqueous Foam Forming Film,High Velocity Water Mist,and Heptaflouropropane.
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    Mae-Khan

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    Join date : 2014-09-29

    Article 1 : "The History of Mae-Khan"

    Post by Mae-Khan on Mon Sep 29, 2014 5:44 pm

    Mae-Khan a nation of two ethnicities (One is native, Khans,), the Khans and the Burgese, is struggling to get back on its feet after a horrendous civil war, the Khan Militia vs. the Royal Burgese Army and Defense Force. The Khans were fighting to be independent of the Burgese dictatorship. The nation was divided, north, Kraa-Mal(Capital) was under the Khans control while south, west and east Kraa-Mal was under Burgese control, and most of the north, east and west of the nation was under the Khans control. Many towns were destroyed by the RBAaDF, and a sacred temple on Mount Kyaskaeisa was bombed, several people were injured and several sacred artifacts and scrolls were lost. After the bombing of Mount Kyaskaeisa the Khan militia tripled in size, seeing as many Khans were angry as a most sacred temple was the target the Burgese had chosen. With this boost of troops the Khans had an advantage, but the Burgese had more ammunition and had cut off all trade routes to north and west Mae-Khan. Several days after the cutting off of the trade routes, the war was over, the native Khans had won. A few days later, there was the trials of 896, Burgese officials/leaders and supporters, their sentence was exile from Mae-Khan, they could never come back, and if they so much as stepped a centimeter onto Mae-Khani soil, they would be shot on the spot. After that the rest of the thousands of Burgese living in Mae-Khan started to leave, finding it hard to thrive in such a troubled place, and seeing many of there friends and family being put into exile, they thought they had no choice but to go. And when the last few Burgese, that were leaving, had left, Mae-Khan closed its borders off to all foreigners, and started the process of isolation, cutting off all trade with other nations, Banning all imports and most exports. It had a great army and a great, new, government but there was still a lot of work to be done to improve life in Mae-Khan.

    Please read the next section of this article : "The similarities and differences of Mae-Khan then and now" next Sunday.
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    North Macwick

    Posts : 23
    Join date : 2014-08-14

    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Tue Sep 30, 2014 10:04 am

    Reform Bill Defeated


    Third reading of the Reform Bill


    Joseph Chamberlain moved his Reform Bill for its third reading stating that he hoped that it could be amended before it is passed. He moved an amendment to remove the clause that allows the monarch to dissolve Parliament whenever they wished. Arthur Henderson, leader of the Socialists and Charles Fox, leader of the Liberal spoke in support of the amendment as did other Radicals, Socialists and Liberals.

    The First Minister William Grenville did not speak, however George Spencer, the new Business and Industry Minister did speak in favour of the amendment, but as well as Charles Watson-Wentworth, Henry Temple spoke against showing how divided the 89-ers were on the issue.


    George Spencer Business and Industry Minister


    Henry Temple Minister of Defense

    Also speaking against the amendment were Robert Dundas on behalf of the Conservatives, Louis Ambroise, leader of the Monarchists and Luke Alman, leader of the Clericalists.

    This amendment was defeated: 185:348

    Louis Ambroise, leader of the Monarchists moved an amendment to delete the clause that would allow a Parliament to continue on the death of the monarch. Henry Addington spoke in favour of this amendment stating that the Conservatives supported it. Also Luke Alman, leader of the Clericalists spoke in favour.

    This was opposed by the Socialists, Radicals and Liberals with Frederick Jowett speaking on behalf of the Socialists, George Lansbury on behalf of the Radicals and Shirley Williams on behalf of the Liberals


    Frederick Jowett Socialist Member of Parliament


    George Lansbury Radical Member of Parliament


    Shirley Williams Minister of Health

    This amendment was passed 352:168

    The bill was defeated 273:288

    After the debate Chris Huhne spoke to the press to say that he believed that the bill as amended would have been passed if the Radicals were still in government and half a bill was better than no bill at all. He stated that there were the same number of votes against the third reading as there had been against the second but it was the lack of support from the 89-ers that killed the bill. He stated that he believed at least 20 89-ers would have voted for the bill if the Radicals were still part of the government to show coalition unity. He called for Joseph Chamberlain to resign as leader of the Radicals so a new leader could be elected.


    Chris Huhne
    Radical Member of Parliament
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    North Macwick

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    Join date : 2014-08-14

    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Wed Oct 01, 2014 5:35 am

    Rumours abound in Brythornburgh today


    It is believed that the Cabinet discussed the report by Herbert Samuel on SECURS and its military protocol. No minutes of Cabinet meetings are published and no members normally speak about what has been discussed let alone what has been agreed. It is rumoured that the report raised over 15 concerns with the text of the treaty and protocol and whether North Macwick would want to abide by these terms.

    After the Cabinet meeting William Grenville, Charles Fox and Herbert Samuel were seen going into the Hardling Palace the home of the Crown Prince. It is rumoured they met with Crown Prince Charles. Later in the day it is rumoured that both Robert Jenkinson, leader of the Conservatives and Louis Ambroise, leader of the Monarchists were seen going into Hardling Palace. It is also rumoured that Charles Watson-Wentworth was seen leaving Hardling Palace.

    Speculation mounts that there is likely to be an announcement shortly that North Macwick will not be seeking to join SECURS.

    Today in Parliament


    Third reading of the Regency Bill


    Louis Ambroise, leader of the Monarchists, proposed the Regency Bill for its third reading in Parliament and First Minister William Grenville moved an amendment. This amendment would ensure that the Crown Prince would only be able to assume the powers of the Monarch if two doctors state that King John because of his health can no longer carry out the duties of the Monarch sufficiently.

    Joseph Chamberlain leader of the Radicals and Arthur Henderson leader of the Socialist called on the whole bill to be voted down, while William Grenville declared that the government would have a free vote if the government’s amendment was not passed. Again Robert Jenkinson, leader of the Conservatives and Luke Alman, leader of the Clericalists both spoke against the amendment, but David Laws was absent from the chamber and Charles Watson-Wentworth did not speak in the debate.

    The government amendment was passed: 286:284

    The bill passed its third reading 497:72 and was taken to King John VII for the royal assent, which is expected to be given tomorrow.

    There is a lot of speculation about what Crown Prince Charles would do if he had the powers of the monarch. There is an expectation that he would dismiss First Minister William Grenville and ask the leader of the Conservatives, Robert Jenkinson to form a new government.


    William Grenville

    Robert Jenkinson
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    North Macwick

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    Re: Esamir National News Network

    Post by North Macwick on Thu Oct 02, 2014 12:30 pm

    Announcement on new energy deal with New Tarajan


    John Simon has announced that while the Deputy Prime Minister of New Tarajan, Count Rudolf Van Hagen, is here the government will also be signing an energy deal. It has been agreed that in exchange for wheat, barley, rye, oats, trout, wood and iron ore North Macwick will receive solar energy from space. Helodine Energy will be given the contract to build a receiver for the energy.

    John Simon went on to say, this deal will stimulate the economy. The first stage will create new jobs in Mediolanum where the receiver will be built. Then the agricultural sectors will be stimulated so that the resources can be purchased for the exchange and then the cheap energy will reduce prices and again stimulate the economy. The whole of North Macwick will benefit from this deal.


    John Simon Minister for the Environment

    New Budget announced


    Frederick Robinson has presented his new budget to Parliament. In it he continues the major expenditures on Education, Healthcare and Social Welfare, and announced that cuts would be made to Administration to fund the new expenditure on warships, the solar energy receiver, the resources to exchange for the energy and funds for the new regiments. However the most surprising feature was the removal of the tax exceptions that apply to churches and other religious organisations.


    Frederick Robinson, Minister of Finance

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    Re: Esamir National News Network

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